It's impossible to discuss modern India without mentioning the British colonial period that was so central to the country's recent history. Beginning in 1772, Britain effectively had control of the whole country by the nineteenth century. It was Gandhi who achieved independence for India in August 1947. The legacy of the British rule is evident in many of the cities - including stunning examples of colonial architecture in New Delhi and Mumbai.
Travelers interested in the Raj should head to Rajasthan, where many beautiful palaces and forts stand as proud reminders of past dominance. Major cities of interest include Jaipur, Jaisalmer, Jodhpur and Udaipur. The iconic Taj Mahal is located in Agra, just to the east of Rajasthan. Varanasi on the banks of the sacred Ganges River is also worth investigating.
For an entirely different Indian experience, consider chilling on the beaches of Goa or taking in the serene beauty of Kerala. On the other hand, head to the north and travel through the states of Punjab and Chandigarh. And there is also Calcutta, which received world-wide attention thanks to the late Mother Teresa.